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Jacob - The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ancestor of the twelve tribes of Israel Jacopone da Todi - More properly called Jacopo Benedetti. Biographical article on the lawyer, widower, Franciscan poet sympathetic to the Spirituals, who died about 1306 Jainism - A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in pre-Christian times Jamaica - The largest of the British West Indian islands, situated in the Caribbean Sea James, Epistle of Saint - The author is commonly identified with the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem; the view that the Lord's brother must be identified with James, the son of Alpheus, is by far the most probable James the Greater, Saint - What can be known of St. James, son of Zebedee and brother of John, from Scripture. Also discusses the tradition that St. James preached in Spain and that his body was translated to Compostela James the Less, Saint - Identifies James the Less with James the Apostle, son of Alpheus, and with James the brother of the Lord James Thompson, Blessed - Also called James Hudson. Priest who was imprisoned and then martyred at York in 1582 Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint - Biography of the widowed baroness, mother, founder of the Congregation of the Visitation, who died in 1641 Jansenius and Jansenism - The subject of this article lived three-quarters of a century later than his namesake. He was born 28 October, 1585, of a Catholic family, in the village of Accoi, near Leerdam, Holland; died at Ypres, 6 May, 1638 Janssen, Arnold - Short biography of the founder of the Society of the Divine Word Januarius, Saint - Bishop of Beneventum, martyr, believed to have died in the Diocletian persecution, c. 305. Article has a lengthy discussion of the liquefaction of the saint's blood Japan - Called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the Rising Sun), and Dai Nihon or Dai Nippon (Great Japan), situated northwest of the Pacific Ocean and east of the Asiatic continent Japanese Martyrs - The most famous of the Japanese martyrs are the twenty-six who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597, but thousands of other Japanese died for the faith between 1560 and 1860 Jealousy - Taken to be synonymous with envy Jean Eudes, Blessed - French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680 Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869 Jeanne de Valois, Saint - Biography of St. Jeanne, also known as Jehanne de France or Jane of Valois, queen, founder of the Annonciades. She died in 1505 Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible (Joel, iii-Heb. text, iv) Jehovah - Proper name of God in the Old Testament Jeremiah the Prophet - Background information on his era. His life and mission. Analysis of the Biblical book which bears his name Jeroboam - Name of two Israelitish kings Jerome, Saint - Lengthy article on the life and works of St. Jerome Jerome Emiliani, Saint - Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537 Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71) - This article deals with the destruction by the Romans after it had become the scene of the Redemption Jerusalem (71-1099) - History in several periods to the first crusade Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291) - Founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed a first time by Saladin in 1187, it was re-established around Saint-Jean d'Acre and maintained until the capture of that city in 1291 Jerusalem (After 1291) - The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, 1187, when the city opened its gates to Saladin (Yusuf ibn Ayyub, Salah-ed-din, Emir of Egypt, 1169-93); although fragments of the Latin kingdom in Palestine lasted into another century Jesuits, The - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order Jesuit Apologetic - The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and fierceness Jesuits, Distinguished - A list without details of the Jesuits. Does include links to articles when there is one about the person Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750) - Includes details of activities in various countries Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773) - The most difficult part of the history of the Society Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912) - Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay Jesuit's Bark - On account of its alkaloids, is the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria Jesus Christ - The incarnate Son of God and the redeemer of the human race Jesus Christ, Character of - The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most varied type Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of - Includes absolute and relative chronologies Jesus Christ, Devotion to the Heart of - Description, spiritual significance, and historical background of devotion to the Sacred Heart Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on - Divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources Jesus Christ, Genealogy of - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke Jesus Christ, Holy Name of - Reverence for the name of Jesus is not optional for believers. Article highlights the Scriptural reasons, and describes some customary ways of showing reverence Jesus Christ, Knowledge of - 'Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know about Jesus Christ, but a survey of the intellectual endowment of Christ Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of - Article examines the name Jesus and Christ separately Jesus Christ, Resurrection of - Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life Jesus, The Society of - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order Jewish Calendar - Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras Jewish Tribe - The earlier Hebrew term rendered in English versions by the word 'tribe' is shebet, while the term matteh, prevails in the post-exilic writings Jews (as a Religion) - Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians Jews, History of the - Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism, the former denotes usually the Israelites or descendants of Jacob (Israel) in contrast to Gentile races; the latter, the creed and worship of the Jews in contrast to Christianity and others Jezabel - Wife of Achab, King of Israel Joachim, Saint - According to apocryphal literature, the father of Mary Joachim of Flora - Article on this Cistercian abbot, mystic, regarded as a prophet, d. 1202 Joan, Popess - The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed in the middle of the thirteenth century Joan of Arc, Saint - Her brief life, her trial and death, swift rehabilitation, and her beatification in 1909 Job - One of the books of the Old Testament, and the chief personage in it Joel - Profile of the Old Testament prophet and analysis of the book bearing his name Jogues, Saint Isaac - French Jesuit missionary to Canada, martyred in 1646 John I, Pope Saint - A Tuscan, was warmly received in Constantinople, but upon his return to Rome, was imprisoned by King Theodoric. Pope John died in prison in 526 John II, Pope - A Roman and the son of Projectus; if not born in the second region (Coelimontium) he had at least been a priest of St. Clement's Basilica John III, Pope - A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574 John IV, Pope - A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius John V, Pope - A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 August, 686 John VI, Pope - A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705 John VII, Pope - Reigned 705-707 John VIII, Pope - Reigned 872-82 John IX, Pope - Reigned 898-900 John X, Pope - Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928 John XI, Pope - Reigned 931-935 John XII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64 John XIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972 John XIV, Pope - After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, earlier imperial chancellor of Italy, was elected pope with the consent of Emperor Otto II, and took the name of John John XV (XVI), Pope - Enthroned 985; d. April, 996 John XVI (XVII) - Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013 John XVII (XVIII), Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003 John XVIII (XIX), Pope - Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009 John XIX (XX), Pope - Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032 John XXI (XX), Pope - Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277 John XXII, Pope - Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 December, 1334 John XXIII - Antipope (1370-1419) John, Epistles of - Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John John, Gospel of - According to the traditional order, the Gospel of St. John occupies the last place among the four canonical Gospels John and Paul, Saints - Roman martyrs, c. 362 John Baptist de la Salle, Saint - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers John Berchmans, Saint - Biography of this Jesuit, always pious, who died in 1621 at the age of 22 John Bosco, Saint - Commonly called Don Bosco or John Bosco. Founder of the Salesians, d. 1888 John Capistran, Saint - Lawyer, governor, ambassador, became a Franciscan priest and a renowned preacher, died in 1456 John Chrysostom, Saint - Long biographical article on this bishop and Doctor of the Church John Damascene, Saint - Lengthy biographical article on the last of the Greek Fathers John Fisher, Saint - Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, martyr, d. 1535 John Francis Regis, Saint - Jesuit priest and missionary, d. 1640 John Nepomucene, Saint - Biography of the vicar general of the Archdiocese of Prague, who was tortured and then thrown into the Moldau and drowned, by order of King Wenceslaus IV, in 1393 John of God, Saint - Portuguese shepherd, soldier, bookseller, finally found his niche caring for the health of the poor in Granada, became de facto founder of a religious order, d. 1550 John of the Cross, Saint - Article on the life and teaching of this Discalced Carmelite associated with St. Teresa of Avila. Mystic, Doctor of the Church, d. 1591 John the Baptist, Saint - Lengthy article on the Precursor John the Evangelist, Saint - Brother of James and son of Zebedee John the Faster - Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), famous chiefly through his assumption of the title 'ecumenical patriarch'; d. 2 September, 595 Joliet, Louis - A discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, Canada, on 21 September 1645; d. in Canada, May 1700 Jonah - The fifth of the Minor Prophets. Article takes a look at the Book of Jonah Jonas - The fifth of the Minor Prophets. Article takes a look at the Book of Jonah Jordan, The - Formed at a point about five and a half miles below Banias, by the junction of three streams, the Jordan enters Lake Huleh about nine and a third miles lower down Josaphat and Barlaam - Main characters of a seventh-century Christian legend. Barlaam, a hermit, converted the prince Josaphat to Christianity, despite the efforts of Josaphat's father Abenner to prevent such a thing. Although Barlaam and Josaphat are included in the Roman Martyrology and in the Greek calendar, the story is actually a Christianized version of a legend about Buddha Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint - Lithuanian-born Basilian monk and Ruthenian Rite archbishop of Polotsk, writer. He loved to make profound bows while reciting the Jesus Prayer. Martyred in 1623 Joseph, Saint - Information on the entire life of St. Joseph Joseph - The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim Joseph Calasanctius, Saint - Priest, founder of the Piarists, d. 1648 Joseph of Arimathea - All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels Joseph of Cupertino, Saint - Mystic from a very young age, priest, d. 1663. Biographical article Joseph II - German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and successor of Maria Theresa and Francis I Joseph, Sisters of Saint - Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. Jean-Paul Medaille of the Society of Jesus Josephus, Flavius - Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem; died about 101 Joshua - The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books Josias - A pious King of Juda (639-608 B.C.), who ascended the throne when he was only eight years of age. He was the son of Amon and the grandson of Manasses Josue - The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books Jovianus, Flavius Claudius - Roman Emperor, 363-4 Jubilee, Holy Year of - Background information relating to the Jubilee Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew) - According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that follows immediately seven successive Sabbatic years (the Sabbatic year being the seventh year of a seven-year cycle) Jubilees, Book of - An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and stories contained in it are arranged throughout in a fanciful chronological system of jubilee-periods of forty-nine years each; each event is recorded as having taken place in such a week of such a month of such a Jubilee year Juda - The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the name of the territory occupied by the same, and also the name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament Judaism - Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians Judaizers - A party of Jewish Christians in the Early Church, who either held that circumcision and the observance of the Mosaic Law were necessary for salvation and in consequence wished to impose them on the Gentile converts, or who at least considered them as still obligatory on the Jewish Christians Judas Iscariot - The Apostle who betrayed Jesus Judas Machabeus - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4) Jude, Epistle of Saint - One of the so-called antilegomena; but, although its canonicity has been questioned in several Churches, its genuineness has never been denied Judea - It designates the part of Palestine adjacent to Jerusalem and inhabited by the Jewish community after their return from captivity Judges, The Book of - The seventh book of the Old Testament, second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon Judgment, Divine - Divine judgment (judicium divinum), as an immanent act of God, denotes the action of God's retributive justice by which the destiny of rational creatures is decided according to their merits and demerits Judgment, General - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 3:4; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine Judgment, Last - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 3:4; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine Judgment, Particular - The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God Judith, Book of - The book exists in distinct Greek and Latin versions, of which the former contains at least eighty-four verses more than the later Juliana, Saint - Martyred in the Diocletian persecution. The oldest notice says that she died near Naples; the notion that she lived in Nicomedia is strictly legendary Juliana Falconieri, Saint - Niece of St. Alexis Falconieri. She founded the Servite Third Order, and died in 1341 Juliana of Norwich - Biographical article on this fourteenth-century English anchoress, mystic, author. By Edmund Gardner Julian the Apostate - Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, 363, son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great Julia Billiart, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816 Julie Billiart, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816 Julius I, Pope Saint - A Roman, anti-Arian, supporter of St. Athanasius. Julius died in 352 Julius II, Pope - Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 November, 1503; died at Rome, in the night of 20-21 February, 1513 Julius III, Pope - Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555 Julius Africanus - The father of Christian chronography Junípero Serra - Biography of the famed Franciscan priest, missionary to Mexico and California, who died in 1784 Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical - The right to guide and rule the Church of God Justice - In its ordinary and proper sense, signifiies the most important of the cardinal virtues Justification - A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the transforming of the sinner from the state of unrighteousness to the state of holiness and sonship of God Justinian I - Roman Emperor (527-65) Justin Martyr, Saint - Lengthy article on the life and teachings of the apologist