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Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez - Born at Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain; dates of birth and death uncertain Cabot, John & Sebastian - Navigators and explorers Cabral, Pedralvarez - Portuguese navigator (b. 1460) Cabrillo, Estévan - Sixteenth century sailor Cadalous - Bishop and antipope (d. 1072) Caddo Indians - In the earlier period they were commonly known to the Spaniards as Tejas, whence the name of the State, and to the French as Cenis or Assinais Cædmon, Saint - Article on the laborer for the double monastery of Whitby, composer of hymns and other Biblical poems in Anglo-Saxon, who died between 670 and 680 Cæsarea Philippi - A Greek Catholic residential see, and a Latin titular see, in Syria Cæsarius of Arles, Saint - Bishop, theologian, renowned as a popular preacher, wrote two monastic rules, died 543 Caiaphas - Jewish High Priest Cain - First-born of Adam and Eve Cainites - A name used for (1) the descendants of Cain, (2) a sect of Gnostics and Antinomians Caiphas - Jewish High Priest Caius - Third-century Christian author Caius and Soter, Saints - Popes, having their feast together on 22 April Cajetan, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines Cajetan, Tommaso de Vio Gaetani - Domincan cardinal, philosopher, theologian, and exegete (1469-1534) Calasanctius, Saint Joseph - Priest, founder of the Piarists, d. 1648 Calatrava, Military Order of - Founded in Castile, in the twelfth century, as a military branch of the great Cistercian family Calcutta - Extends along the sea-coast from the Khabadak to the Mahanundi River Caleb - Six people with this name are described Calendar, Christian - Includes history and Saint's days Calendar, Jewish - Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras Calendar, Reform of the - Such alterations were too obvious to be ignored, and throughout the Middle Ages many observers both pointed them out and endeavoured to devise a remedy California Missions - Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California Callistus I, Pope - Martyr, d. about 223. Also known as Callixtus or Calixtus Callistus II, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 13 December, 1124 Callistus III, Pope - Born near Valencia in Spain, 31 December, 1378; died at Rome, 6 August, 1458 Calumny - Etymologically any form of ruse or fraud employed to deceive another, particularly in judicial proceedings Calvary, Mount - The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ Calvert, George - First Lord Baltimore, statesman and colonizer (1580-1632) Calvert, Cecilius - Second Lord Baltimore (1606-1675) Calvin, John - Born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564 Calvinism - Calvin succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians Camaldolese - A joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald at the beginning of the eleventh century Camerlengo - The title of certain papal officials Camillus de Lellis, Saint - Biographical article on founder of a religious order devoted to care of the sick and dying Camões, Luis Vaz de - Epic poet, born in 1524 or 1525; died 10 June, 1580 Campion, Saint Edmund - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article Cana - A city of Galilee, Palestine Canaan, Canaanites - The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person Canada - Comprises all that part of North America north of the United States, with the exception of Newfoundland, and Labrador Canada, Catholicity in - Treated under three headings: I. Period of French domination, from the discovery of Canada to the Treaty of Paris, in 1763; II. Period of British rule, from 1763 to the present day; III. Present conditions Candace - Ethiopian queen Candle, Paschal - A large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy Saturday Candlemas - Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple Candles - The word candle (candela, from candeo, to burn) was introduced into the English language as an ecclesiastical term, probably as early as the eighth century Candles, Altar - For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax Candlestick, Seven-Branch - One of the three chief furnishings of the Holy of the Tabernacle and the Temple. In reality it was an elaborate lampstand, set on the south side of the Holy Place Candlesticks - Provides the history of their use in Christian churches Candlesticks, Altar - Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed Canice, Saint - Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600 Canisius, Peter, Blessed - Long essay on the Dutch Jesuit priest, who died in 1597 Canon - Ecclesiastical person Canon - Musical term, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms Canoness - The assistance of women in the work of the Church goes back to the earliest time, and their uniting together for community exercises was a natural development of religious worship Canon of the Mass - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations Canon of the Old Testament - Signifies the authoritative list or closed number of the writings composed under Divine inspiration, and destined for the well-being of the Church Canon of the New Testament - The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history Canon Law - Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members Canonical Hours - Essay on the practice of reciting the Divine Office according to set hours Canonization and Beatification - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis Canons, Apostolic - A collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions Canons, Ecclesiastical - Certain rules or norms of conduct or belief prescribed by the Church Canons and Canonesses Regular - According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric Canopy - An ornamental covering of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an altar, throne, pulpit, or statue Canova, Antonio - Italian sculptor (1757-1822) Canterbury - The Ancient Diocese of Canterbury was the Mother-Church and Primatial See of All England, from 597 till the death of the last Catholic Archbishop, Cardinal Pole, in 1558 Canticle - Used in the English Catholic translation of the Bible as the equivalent of the Vulgate canticum in most, but not all, of the uses of that word; for where canticum is used for a sacred song Canticle of Canticles - One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures Canticle of Simeon - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32 Canticle of Zachary - One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis Cantor - The chief singer (and sometimes instructor) of the ecclesiastical choir, called also precentor Canute - King of the English, Danes, and Norwegians, b. about 994; d. at Shaftesbury, 12 November 1035 Capharnaum - A titular see of Palestine Capital Punishment - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. Captivities of the Israelites - Includes the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman captivities Capuchin Friars Minor - An autonomous branch of the first Franciscan Order Caracalla - Roman Emperor, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, b. 188; d. 217 Carbonari - The name of a secret political society, which played an important part, chiefly in France and Italy, during the first decades of the nineteenth century Cardinal - A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope Cardinal Virtues - The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged Carem - Name of a town in the Tribe of Juda Caribs - Next to the Arawaks, probably the most numerous Indian stock, of more or less nomadic habits, in South America Carlovingian Schools - Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court Carmel, Mount - A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine, usually called in the Hebrew Bible Hakkarmel Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of Mount - This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386 Carmelite Order, The - One of the mendicant orders Carolingian Schools - Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court Carracci - Italian painter, engraver, and etcher, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1557; d. at Parma, 22 March, 1602 Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton - American statesman (1737-1832) Carroll, John - First American bishop (1735-1815) Cartagena - Suffragan of Granada in Spain since the concordat of 1851, previously of Toledo Carthage - Founded by Phoenician colonists, and long the great opponent of Rome in the duel for supremacy, was destroyed by a Roman army, 146 B.C. A little more than a century later (44 B.C.), a new city composed of Roman colonists was founded on the site Carthusian Order, The - The name is derived from the French chartreuse through the Latin cartusia, of which the English 'charterhouse' is a corruption Cartier, Jacques - The discoverer of Canada, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, in 1491; d. 1 September, 1557 Casas, Bartolomé de las - Born at Seville, probably in 1474; d. at Madrid, 1566 Cashel - A town in the County Tipperary, Ireland, which is also a Catholic archbishopric and the see of a Protestant bishop Casimir, Saint - Prince of Poland, remained unmarried by choice, d. in 1484 at the age of 25 Cassian, John - Article on the monk and ascetic writer, who attempted to convey the teaching and way of life of the desert fathers and mothers to the fledgling monastic movement in Gaul Cassini, Giovanni Domenico - Italian astronomer (1625-1712) Cassiodorus - Roman writer, statesman, and monk, b. about 490; d. about 583 Castile and Aragon - The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon Casuistry - The application of general principles of morality to definite and concrete cases of human activity, for the purpose, primarily, of determining what one ought to do, or ought not to do, or what one may do or leave undone as one pleases; and for the purpose, secondarily, of deciding whether and to what extent guilt or immunity from guilt follows on an action already posited Catacombs, Roman - The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome Catafalque - Derived from the Italian word catafalco, literally means a scaffold or elevation, but in its strictly liturgical sense the word is employed to designate the cenotaph-like erection which is used at the exequial offices of the Church, and takes the place of the bier whenever the remains are not present Catechesis - The word katechesis means instruction by word of mouth, especially by questioning and answering. The Apostle insists upon 'doctrine' as one of the most important duties of a bishop Catechism, Roman - This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism Catechumen - In the early Church, was the name applied to one who had not yet been initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was undergoing a course of preparation for that purpose Categorical Imperative - A term which originated in Immanuel Kant's ethics Cathari - From the Greek katharos, pure, literally 'puritans', a name specifically applied to, or used by, several sects at various periods Cathedra - Three uses of the word are detailed Cathedral - The chief church of a diocese Cathedraticum - A certain sum of money to be contributed annually for the support of the bishop, as a mark of honour and in sign of subjection to the cathedral church, hence its name Catherine de' Medici - Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France Catherine de' Ricci, Saint - Biography of the cloistered Third Order Dominican nun, mystic, who died in 1590 Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - Article on the virgin and martyr. In the Middle Ages, one of the most popular saints Catherine of Bologna, Saint - Short biography of this Poor Clare, mystic, and writer, who died in 1463 Catherine of Genoa, Saint - Biography of the mystic and author, who died in 1510 Catherine of Siena, Saint - Third Order Dominican, hermit, reformer, mystic, d. 1380. Biographical article by Edmund G. Gardner Catherine of Sweden, Saint - Daughter of St. Bridget of Sweden. Widow, pilgrim, superior of the Brigittine motherhouse, d. 1381. Biographical article Catholic - The combination 'the Catholic Church' (he katholike ekklesia) is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110 Catholic Epistle - The name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter Catholicos - The ecclesiastical title of the Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs Cause - Cause, as the correlative of effect, is understood as being that which in any way gives existence to, or contributes towards the existence of, any thing; which produces a result; to which the origin of any thing is to be ascribed Caxton, William - Born in the Weald of Kent, c. 1422; died at Westminster, 1491; the first English printer and the introducer of the art of printing into England Cayetano, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines Cecilia, Saint - Virgin and martyr; patroness of church music Cedar - A coniferous tree frequently mentioned in the Bible Celebret - A letter which a bishop gives to a priest, that he may obtain permission in another diocese to say Mass, and for this purpose bears testimony that he is free from canonical censures Celestine I, Pope Saint - Excommunicated Nestorius, sent St. Patrick to Ireland, d. 432 Celestine II, Pope - Reigned 1143-1144 Celestine III, Pope - The first Orsini pope (b. 1106) who reigned 1191-1198 Celestine IV, Pope - Reigned October-November 1241 Celestine V, Pope Saint - Benedictine priest and hermit, d. 1296 Celibacy of the Clergy - The renunciation of marriage implicitly or explicitly made, for the more perfect observance of chastity, by all those who receive the Sacrament of Orders in any of the higher grades Celsus the Platonist - An eclectic Platonist and polemical writer against Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the second century Celtic Rite, The - The term 'Celtic Rite' is generally, but rather indefinitely, applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain, and in the monasteries which resulted from the Irish missions of St. Columbanus in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, at a time when rites other than the then existing rite of Rome were used, wholly or partially, in those places Cemeteries - The word coemeterium or cimiterium (in Gr. koimeterion) may be said in early literature to be used exclusively of the burial places of Jews and Christians Cemeteries, Early Roman Christian - This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome Censer - A vessel suspended by chains, and used for burning incense at solemn Mass, Vespers, Benediction, processions, and other important offices of the Church Censorship of Books - Either ecclesiastical or civil, according as it is practiced by the spiritual or secular authority, and it may be exercised in two ways, viz.: before the printing or publishing of a work, by examining it (censura praevia); and after the printing or publishing, by repressing or prohibiting it (censura repressiva) Centre (Party), The - This name is given to a political party in the German Reichstag and to a number of parties in the diets of the various states of the German Empire Centurion - A Roman officer commanding a century or company, the strength of which varied from fifty to one hundred men Ceremony - In liturgy, an external action, gesture, or movement which accompanies the prayers and public exercise of divine worship Cerinthus - A Gnostic-Ebionite heretic, contemporary with St. John; against whose errors on the divinity of Christ the Apostle is said to have written the Fourth Gospel Certitude - The word indicates both a state of mind and a quality of a proposition, according as we say, 'I am certain', or, 'It is certain' Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de - Spanish author (1547-1616) Ceylon - An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge Chair of Peter - From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City Chalcedon, Council of - The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in 451, from 8 October until 1 November inclusive, at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor Chaldean Christians - The name of former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church Chalice - Occupies the first place among sacred vessels, and by a figure of speech the material cup is often used as if it were synonymous with the Precious Blood itself Chamberlain - The title of certain papal officials Champlain, Samuel de - Founder of Quebec (1570-1635) Chanaan, Chanaanites - The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person Chancel - Part of the choir near the altar of a church, where the deacons or sub-deacons stand to assist the officiating priest Chancery, Diocesan - That branch of administration which handles all written documents used in the official government of a diocese Chanel, Peter-Louis-Marie, Saint - Two articles on the French Marist missionary. Martyred in 1841 Chant, Gregorian - Short description and history, with links to more information Chant, Plain - Description and history of the precursor to Gregorian chant Chantal, Saint Jane Frances de - Biography of the widowed baroness, mother, founder of the Congregation of the Visitation, who died in 1641 Chapel - When St. Martin divided his military cloak (cappa) and gave half to the beggar at the gate of Amiens, he wrapped the other half round his shoulders, thus making of it a cape (capella). This cape, or its representative, was afterwards preserved as a relic and accompanied the Frankish kings in their wars, and the tent which sheltered it became known also as cappella or capella. In this tent Mass was celebrated by the military chaplains (capellani). When at rest in the palace the relic likewise gave its name to the oratory where it was kept, and subsequently any oratory where Mass and Divine service were celebrated was called capella, chapelle, chapel Chaplain - Discusses the types including court, beneficed, parochial, domestic, pontifical, and military Chaplets (Prayer Beads) - Essay on chaplets, rosaries, prayer ropes, prayer cords. Brief treatment of the use of beads in prayer by non-Christians Chapter - Designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies, said to be derived from the chapter of the rule book, which it was the custom to read in the assemblies of monks Character - A consideration of the term as it is used in psychology and ethics Character, Sacramental - Indicates a special effect produced by three of the sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy orders Charismata - The spiritual graces and qualifications granted to every Christian to perform his task in the Church Charity and Charities - In its widest and highest sense, charity includes love of God as well as love of man Charity, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13:13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul - A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul (New York) - Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier Charity, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Cor., xiii, 13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God Charlemagne - Biography of the emperor covering his political, military, and religious entanglements Charles V, Emperor - Born at Ghent, 1500; died at Yuste, in Spain, 1558; was a descendant of the house of Hapsburg, and to this descent owed his sovereignty over so many lands that it was said of him that the sun never set on his dominions Charles Borromeo, Saint - Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation Charles Martel - French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741 Charterhouse - From the fact that St. Bruno founded the first house of his austere order at Chartreux, near Grenoble, the institution has ever since been known by the name of that place Chartres - Diocese in France. Comprises the department of Eure-et-Loir Chartreuse, La Grande - The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine Chastity - The virtue which excludes or moderates the indulgence of the sexual appetite Chasuble - Called in Latin casula planeta or paenula, and in early Gallic sources amphibalus, the principal and most conspicuous Mass vestment, covering all the rest Chateaubriand, François-René - French writer, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, 4 September, 1768; d. at Paris, 4 July, 1848 Chaucer, Geoffrey - Summary of the author's life and literary contributions Cherokee Indians - The largest and most important tribe of Iroquoian stock of the southern section of the United States, and formerly holding the whole southern Alleghany mountain region of North and South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, with considerable portions of Alabama, Virginia and Kentucky Cherubim - Angelic beings or symbolic representations thereof, mentioned frequently in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament Cheyenne - Diocese established 9 August, 1887 Chibchas - In the beginning of the sixteenth century they occupied what is now the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca with, possible, a few outlying settlements Chicago, Archdiocese of - Diocese created 28 November, 1842; raised to the rank of an archdiocese, 10 September, 1880 Children of Mary - The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast China - Includes history, government, education, and religion China, The Church in - The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew China, History of - Discusses the origin of the Chinese Chippewa Indians - The popular name is a corruption of Ojibwa, a name of uncertain etymology, but generally supposed to refer to the 'puckered up' appearance of the seam along the front of the tribal moccasin Chi-Rho (Labarum) - The name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his celebrated vision (Lactantius, 'De mortibus persecutorum', 44), was known in antiquity Chivalry - Considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious Choctaw Indians - An important tribe or confederacy of Muskogean stock formerly holding most of Southern Alabama and Mississippi, with adjoining portions of Louisiana Choir - Church architecture term. Strictly speaking, the choir is that part of the church where the stalls of the clergy are Choir - A body of singers entrusted with the musical parts of the Church service, and organized and instructed for that purpose Chorepiscopi - A name originally given in the Eastern Church to bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural districts Chrism - A mixture of oil of olives and balsam, blessed by a bishop in a special manner and used in the administration of certain sacraments and in the performance of certain ecclesiastical functions Christ, Jesus - The incarnate Son of God and the redeemer of the human race Christ, Agony of - The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke 22:43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani Christ, Character of - The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most varied type Christ, Chronology of the Life of - Includes absolute and relative chronologies Christ, Early Historical Documents on - Divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources Christ, Genealogy of - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke Christ, Holy Name of - Article examines the name Jesus and Christ separately Christ, Knowledge of - 'Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know about Jesus Christ, but a survey of the intellectual endowment of Christ Christ, Order of the Knights of - A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple Christ, Temptation of - Christ endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence Christ, Virgin Birth of - The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son Christendom - In its wider sense this term is used to describe the part of the world which is inhabited by Christians Christendom, Union of - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it Christian Archæology - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments Christian Art - Also called ecclesiastical art Christian Brothers - A society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor Christian Brothers of Ireland - An institute founded at Waterford, Ireland, in 1802, by Edmund Ignatius Rice, a merchant of that city Christian Doctrine, Confraternity of - An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction Christianity - An account is given of Christianity as a religion, describing its origin, its relation to other religions, its essential nature and chief characteristics, but not dealing with its doctrines in detail nor its history as a visible organization Christina Alexandra - Queen of Sweden. Biographical article by P. Wittman Christine de Pisan - Biography, including a list of her major poetic and historical works Christmas - Provides a detailed overview of the holiday from the fourth century through the modern age. Includes links to related topics Christology - Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ Christopher, Saint - Article on this martyr, probably of the third century. Although Christopher has been a center of popular legend since the sixth century, all that can be known for certain is that he was a great martyr Christopher, Pope - Reigned 903-904 Chronicle of Eusebius - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons' Chronicles (Paralipomenon), Books of - Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity. Chronology, Biblical - Deals with the dates of the various events recorded in the Bible Chronology, General - Mathematical chronology determines the units to be employed in measuring time, and historical chronology which fixes in the general course of time the position of any particular occurrence, or, as it is generally termed, its date Chrysostom, Saint John - Long biographical article on this bishop and Doctor of the Church Church, The - The term church is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Jesus Christ Church and State - The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto Churching of Women - A blessing given by the Church to mothers after recovery from childbirth Church Maintenance - The proper support of church edifices and church institutions Ciborium - A chalice-like vessel used to contain the Blessed Sacrament Cid, El - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen Cincinnati - Archdiocese in the state of Ohio Cincture - More commonly called in England, the girdle is an article of liturgical attire which has been recognized as such since the ninth century Circumcision - The Hebrew word, like the Greek (peritome), and the Latin (circumcisio), signifies a cutting and, specifically, the removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, from the penis Circumcision, Feast of the - As Christ wished to fulfil the law and to show His descent according to the flesh from Abraham. He, though not bound by the law, was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke 2:21), and received the sublime name expressive of His office, Jesus, i.e. Saviour Cistercians - Religious of the Order of Citeaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Citeaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict Cistercian Sisters - The first Cistercian monastery for women was established at Tart in the Diocese of Langres (now Dijon), in the year 1125, by sisters from the Benedictine monastery of Juilly, and with the co-operation of St. Stephen Harding, Abbot of Citeaux Cîteaux, Abbey of - Founded in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme, in a deserted and uninhabited part of the Diocese of Chalons-sur Saone Civil Allegiance - The duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen Civil Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members Civil Marriage - The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution Clairvaux, Abbey of - The third daughter of Citeaux and mother in the fourth line of numerous and celebrated monasteries, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, in a deep valley upon the bank of the Aube, and known as the Vallee d'Absinthe Clandestinity (in Canon Law) - Strictly speaking, clandestinity signifies a matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent to invalidate marriages contracted at variance with the exigencies of the decree 'Tametsi', commonly so called because the first word of the Latin text is tametsi Clare of Assisi, Saint - Cofounded the 'Poor Clares' with St. Francis. She died in 1253 Clare of Montefalco, Saint - Abbess, claimed by both the Franciscans and the Augustinians, d. 1308 Claret y Clará, Saint Antonio María - Spanish priest and missionary, founder of the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (better known as the Claretians), d. 1870 Claude de la Colombière, Saint - Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682 Claver, Saint Peter - Biography of the Spanish Jesuit priest who for 33 years ministered to African slaves in the New World, and tried to stop the slave trade. Died in 1654 Clean and Unclean - The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral Cleef, Joost van - Flemish painter (1520-1556) Clement I, Pope Saint - Lengthy article on Clement I, also called Clemens Romanus, the fourth pope and the first of the Apostolic Fathers Clement II, Pope - Reigned 1046-47 Clement III, Pope - Reigned 1187-1191 Clement IV, Pope - Reigned 1265-68 Clement V, Pope - Reigned 1305-14 Clement VI, Pope - Born 1291 in the castle of Maumont, departmentof Correze, France, elected pope, 7 May, 1342, at Avignon, where he died 6 December, 1352 Clement VII, Pope - Reigned 1523-34 Clement VIII, Pope - Reigned 1592-1605 Clement IX, Pope - Reigned 1667-1669 Clement X, Pope - Reigned 1670-1676 Clement XI, Pope - Reigned 1700-1721 Clement XII, Pope - Reigned 1730-1740 Clement XIII, Pope - Reigned 1758-69 Clement XIV, Pope - Reigned 1769-1774 Clement, John - President of the College of Physicians and tutor to St. Thomas More's children, born in Yorkshire about 1500; died 1 July, 1572 Clementines - The name given to the religious romance in two forms as composed by Pope St. Clement I Clement of Alexandria - Fairly lengthy article on his life and writings Cleophas - According to the Catholic English versions the name of two persons mentioned in the New Testament. In Greek, however, the names are different, one being Cleopas, abbreviated form of Cleopatros, and the other Clopas Clerestory - A term formerly applied to any window or traceried opening in a church, e. g. in an aisle, tower, cloister, or screen, but now restricted to the windows in an aisled nave, or to the range of wall in which the high windows are set Cleric - A person who has been legitimately received into the ranks of the clergy Clericis Laicos - The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable exactions of the civil power Cletus, Pope Saint - Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus Cletus, Pope Saint - Says that 'Cletus' is only another form of 'Anacletus,' briefly explains how the error of thinking the two names are two different popes came about, says that Cletus died in about 88 Cleveland - The Diocese, established 23 April, 1847, comprises all that part of Ohio lying north of the southern limits of the Counties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne, Ashland, Richland, Crawford, Wyandot, Hancock, Allen, and Van Wert, its territory covering thirty-six counties Clitherow, Saint Margaret - Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the 'Pearl of York.' St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests Cloister - The English equivalent of the Latin word clausura (from claudere, 'to shut up') Cloths, Altar - The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass Clotilda, Saint - Queen of the Franks, wife of King Clovis I and grandmother of St. Cloud. Devoted to St. Martin of Tours and instrumental in the conversion of the Franks, she died in 545 Clovis - King of the Salic Franks (466-511) Cloyne, Diocese of - Comprises the northern half of County Cork Cluny, Congregation of - The earliest reform, which became practically a distinct order, within the Benedictine family Codex - The name given to a manuscript in leaf form, distinguishing it from a roll Codex Alexandrinus - Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see Codex Bezae - Greek, New Testament manuscript Codex Sinaiticus - A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf Codex Vaticanus - A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century Co-education - The term is now generally reserved to the practice of educating the sexes together; but even in this sense it has a variety of meanings Coemgen, Saint - Abbot of Glendalough, d. 618 Colette, Saint - Founder of the Colettine Poor Clares (Clarisses), d. 1447 Coliseum, The - Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, commenced A.D. 72 by Vespasian, the first of the Flavian emperors, dedicated by Titus A.D. 80 Collect - The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers College - The word college, from the Latin collegium, originally signified a community, a corporation, an organized society, a body of colleagues, or a society of persons engaged in some common pursuit Cologne - German city and archbishopric Colombia - Forms the northwest corner of the South American Continent Colombière, Saint Claude de la - Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682 Colonna - A celebrated family which played an important role in Italy during medieval and Renaissance times Colonna, Vittoria - Italian poet, born at Marino, 1490; died at Rome, February 25, 1547 Colonnade - A number of columns symmetrically arranged in one or more rows Colossæ - A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, suppressed in 1894 Colossians, Epistle to the - One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome Colours, Liturgical - The Church directs that the vestments worn by ministers, and the drapery used in the decoration of the altar should correspond in colour to that which is prescribed for the Office of the day Columba, Saint - Also known as Columcille. Long article on the Irish-born monk, founder and abbot of Iona. He died in 597 Columbanus, Saint - Irish-born abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio, author of a monastic rule and of a penitential, d. 615. Biography Columbus, Christopher - Lengthy biographical article on the explorer Column - Architectural term for a supporting pillar Commandments of the Church - Article includes: I. the nature of the Commandments of the Church in general; II. the history of the Commandments of the Church; and III. their classification Commandments of God (The Ten Commandments) - The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures Commentaries on the Bible - Includes: I. Jewish Commentaries; II. Patristic; III. Medieval; IV. Modern Catholic; and V. Non-Catholic Commodus - Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192 Common Life, Brethren of the - A community founded by Geert De Groote, born at Deventer in Gelderland in 1340; died 1384 Common Prayer, Book of - Includes history and contents Common Sense, Philosophy of - The term common sense designates (1) a special faculty, the sensus communis of the Aristotelean and Scholastic philosophy; (2) the sum of original principles found in all normal minds; (3) the ability to judge and reason in accordance with those principles (recta ratio, good sense) Communion, Frequent - Discusses the history and practice Communion, Holy - By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist Communion Antiphon - The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament Communion of Children - Article includes (1) the ancient practice, and (2) the present discipline of the Church in regard to the Communion of children Communion of Saints - The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: 'I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints' Communion of the Sick - Differs from ordinary Communion as to the class of persons to whom it is administered, as to the dispositions with which it may be received, and as to the place and ceremonies of administration Communion Rail - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail Communion under Both Kinds - Communion under one kind is the reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist under the species or appearance of bread alone, or of wine alone, Communion under two or both kinds, the distinct reception under the two or both species, sub utraque specie, at the same time Communism - In its more general signification communism refers to any social system in which all property, or at least all productive property, is owned by the group, or community, instead of by individuals Comnena, Anna - Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118) Compiégne, Teresian Martyrs of - Guillotined at the Place du Trone Renverse (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 July, 1794 Compline - Scholarly essay on what is essentially a bedtime prayer, often recited privately Compostela - A famous city of Spain, situated on an eminence between the Sar (the Sars of Pomponius Mela) and Sarela Concelebration - The rite by which several priests say Mass together, all consecrating the same bread and wine Conceptualism, Nominalism, Realism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals Conclave - The closed room or hall specially set aside and prepared for the cardinals when electing a pope; also the assembly of the cardinals for the canonical execution of this purpose Concordances of the Bible - Lists of Biblical words arranged alphabetically with indications to enable the inquirer to find the passages of the Bible where the words occur Concordat - In general, a concordat means an agreement, or union of wills, on some matter Concordat of 1801, The French - This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope Pius VII and Bonaparte, First Consul, re-established the Catholic Church in France Concubinage - The meaning of the term in Roman law, and consequently in early ecclesiastical records and writings, was much the same; a concubine was a quasi-wife, recognized by law if there was no legal wife Concupiscence - In its widest acceptation, concupiscence is any yearning of the soul for good; in its strict and specific acceptation, a desire of the lower appetite contrary to reason Condition - That which is necessary or at least conducive to the actual operation of a cause Confession, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same. Confession, Seal of - 'Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed....' Confessor - A title of honour to designate of the Faith who had confessed Christ publicly in time of persecution and had been punished with imprisonment, torture, exile, or labour in the mines, remaining faithful in their confession until the end of their lives Confirmation - Describes its origin from Biblical texts and how it has been handed down through the ages. The rite is briefly described, and the minister, matter, form, recipient, effects, necessity and sponsors are detailed Confiteor - A general confession of sins; it is used in the Roman Rite at the beginning of Mass and on various other occasions as a preparation for the reception of some grace Confraternity (Sodality) - A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety Confraternity of Christian Doctrine - An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction Confucianism - An article by Charles F. Aiken. Reviews the key teachings and history of Confucianism, and its relation to Christianity Congo - An account written before the annexation of the state by the Belgian government Congregationalism - The successful establishment of the New England colonies was an event of the utmost importance in the development of Congregationalism, a term preferred by the American Puritans to Independency and gradually adopted by their coreligionists in Great Britain Congregations, Roman - The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome Conon, Pope - Reigned 686-687 Consanguinity (in Canon Law) - The term here means, within certain limitations defined by the law of nature, the positive law of God, or the supreme authority of State or Church, the blood-relationship (cognatio naturalis), or the natural bond between persons descended from the same stock Conscience - The individual, as in him customary rules acquire ethical character by the recognition of distinct principles and ideals, all tending to a final unity or goal, which for the mere evolutionist is left very indeterminate, but for the Christian has adequate definition in a perfect possession of God by knowledge and love, without the contingency of further lapses from duty Conscience, Examination of - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law Consciousness - In its widest sense it includes all sensations, thoughts, feelings, and volitions, in fact the sum total of mental life Consecration - An act by which a thing is separated from a common and profane to a sacred use, or by which a person or thing is dedicated to the service and worship of God by prayers, rites, and ceremonies Consent (in Canon Law) - The deliberate agreement required of those concerned in legal transactions in order to legalize such actions Consistory, Papal - The origin of the papal consistory is closely connected with the history of the Roman presbytery or body of the Roman clergy Constance - Formerly the seat of a diocese Constance, Council of - A (partly) ecumenical council held at Constance, now in the Grand Duchy of Baden, from 5 Nov., 1414, to 22 April, 1418 Constantine, Pope - Reigned 708-715 Constantine the Great - Information on the Roman emperor Constantine, Donation of - By this name is understood, since the end of the Middle Ages, a forged document of Emperor Constantine the Great, by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church Constantinople - Capital, formerly of the Byzantine, now of the Ottoman, Empire (As of 1908, when the article was written.) Constantinople, First Ecumenical Council of - Called in May, 381, by Emperor Theodosius, to provide for a Catholic succession in the patriarchal See of Constantinople, to confirm the Nicene Faith, to reconcile the semi-Arians with the Church, and to put an end to the Macedonian heresy Constantinople, Second Ecumenical Council of - This council was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June, 553), having been called by Emperor Justinian. It was attended mostly by Oriental bishops; only six Western (African) bishops were present Constantinople, Third Ecumenical Council of - The Sixth General Council was summoned in 678 by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, with a view of restoring between East and West the religious harmony that had been troubled by the Monothelistic controversies Constantinople, Fourth Ecumenical Council of - The Eighth General Council was opened, 5 October, 869, in the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, under the presidency of the legates of Adrian II Constantinople, Council of - A particular council held in A.D. 382 Constantinople, Council of, in Trullo - Particular council held in A.D. 692 Constantinople, The Rite of - The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople Constantius, Flavius Julius - Roman emperor (317-361) Consubstantiation - This heretical doctrine is an attempt to hold the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist without admitting Transubstantiation Contemplation - The idea of contemplation is connected with that of mystical theology Contemplative Life - A life ordered in view of contemplation; a way of living especially adapted to lead to and facilitate contemplation, while it excludes all other preoccupations and intents Continence - Defined as abstinence from even the licit gratifications of marriage Contingent - Aside from its secondary and more obvious meaning (as, for instance, its qualification of the predicable accident, of a class of modal propositions, and so on), the primary and technically philosophical use of the term is for one of the supreme divisions of being, that is, contingent being, as distinguished from necessary being Contract - The canonical and moralist doctrine on this subject is a development of that contained in the Roman civil law. In civil law, a contract is defined as the union of several persons in a coincident expression of will by which their legal relations are determined Contract, The Social - Includes contents and critique Contractus, Hermann - Chronicler, mathematician, and poet (1013-1054) Contrition - Lat. contritio, a breaking of something hardened Contrition, Imperfect - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations Convent - (1) A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity (2) The buildings in which resides a community of either sex Convent Schools (Great Britain) - Convent education is treated here not historically but as it is at the present day (Article written in 1908.) Conventuals, Order of Friars Minor - One of the three separate bodies, forming with the Friars Minor and the Capuchins what is commonly called the First Order of St. Francis Conversion - Refers to a moral change, a turning or returning to God and to the true religion Cope - A vestment which may most conveniently be described as a long liturgical mantle, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp Copernicus, Nicolaus - Latinized form of Niclas Kopernik, the name of the founder of the heliocentric planetary theory; born at Torun (Thorn), 19 February, 1473, died at Frauenburg, 24 May, 1543 Coptic Persecutions - During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria seems to have been freer from official persecution at the hands of the Roman Government than its sister churches of Rome and Antioch. . . Coptic Versions of the Bible - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest Corinth - A titular archiepiscopal see of Greece Corinthians, Epistles to the - The historical and internal evidence that they were written by St. Paul is overwhelmingly strong Cornelius - A centurion of the Italic cohort, whose conversion at Caesarea with his household is related in Acts 10 Cornelius, Pope - Had to contend with the antipope Novatian. When persecution broke out, Cornelius was exiled, and he died a martyr in 253 Corner Stone - Rite regarding the blessing and laying of the Foundation Stone for the building of a church Cornice - The uppermost division of the entablature, the representative of the roof, of an order, consisting of projecting mouldings and blocks, usually divisible into bed-moulding, corona, and gutter Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de - Explorer, b. at Salamanca, Spain, 1500; d. in Mexico, 1553 Coronation - Discussed as (I) The Emperors at Constantinople; (II) Visigothic and Celtic Elements; (III) The English Coronation Orders; (IV) The Western Empire and the Roman Pontifical; and (V) Other Ceremonials Corporal - A square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of an altar, upon which the Sacred Host and chalice are placed during the celebration of Mass Corpus Christi, Feast of - This feast is celebrated in the Latin Church on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday to solemnly commemorate the institution of the Holy Eucharist Corpus Juris Canonici - The term corpus here denotes a collection of documents; corpus juris, a collection of laws, especially if they are placed in systematic order Correction, Fraternal - The admonishing of one's neighbor by a private individual with the purpose of reforming him or, if possible, preventing his sinful indulgence Cortés, Hernando - Conqueror of Mexico, born at Medellin in Spain c. 1485; died at Castilleja de la Cuesta near Seville, 2 December, 1547 Cosmas and Damian, Saints - Short hagiography of these twins, physicians, and martyrs. They died on 27 September, probably in the year 287 Cosmogony - By this term is understood an account of how the universe (cosmos) came into being (gonia - gegona = I have become). It differs from cosmology, or the science of the universe, in this: that the latter aims at understanding the actual composition and governing laws of the universe as it now exists; while the former answers the question as to how it first came to be Cosmology - In our day cosmology is a branch of philosophical study, and therefore excludes from its investigation whatever forms the object of the natural sciences Costume, Clerical - In almost every country and every order of the clergy, the clothing has its own distinctive features Councils, Ecumenical - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I Councils, General - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I Councils, Plenary - A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. Counsels, Evangelical - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed Counter-Reformation, The - Denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 Cousin, Germain, Saint - Sickly, pious shepherdess, cruelly treated by her stepmother. St. Germaine died in 1601, at the age of 22 Covenant, Ark of the - A kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height Covetousness - Generally, an unreasonable desire for what we do not possess Cowl - A hood worn in many religious orders Creation - Like other words of the same ending, the term creation signifies both an action and the object or effect thereof. Thus, in the latter sense, we speak of the 'kingdoms of creation', 'the whole creation', and so on Creation, Six Days of - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis Creationism - (1) In the widest sense, the doctrine that the material of the universe was created by God out of no pre-existing subject (2) Less widely, the doctrine that the various species of living beings were immediately and directly created or produced by God, and are not therefore the product of an evolutionary process Credence - A small table of wood, marble, or other suitable material placed within the sanctuary of a church and near the wall at the Epistle side, for the purpose of holding the cruets, acolytes' candles, and other utensils required for the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice Cree - The largest and most important Indian tribe of Canada, and one of the largest north of Mexico Creed - In general, a form of belief Creed, Apostles' - A formula containing in brief statements, or 'articles,' the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles Creed, Liturgical Use of - The public use of creeds began in connection with baptism, in the Traditio and Redditio symboli, as a preparation for that sacrament, and in the preliminary interrogations Creed, Nicene - The profession of the Christian Faith common to the Catholic Church, to all the Eastern Churches separated from Rome, and to most of the Protestant denominations. Cremation - The custom of burning the bodies of the dead Crib - The crib or manger in which the Infant Saviour was laid after his birth is properly that place in the stable or khan where food for domestic animals is put, formed probably of the same material out of which the grotto itself is hewn Criticism, Higher - Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with the state in which these exist at the present day Criticism, Historical - The art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of the past Criticism, Textual - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost Croatia - Includes history, education, and religion Crosier - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions Cross and Crucifix in Archæology - The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity Cross and Crucifix in Liturgy - Information on the history and uses Cross, Sign of the - A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross Cross, The True - (1) Growth of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross Cross-Bearer - The cleric or minister who carries the processional cross, that is, a crucifix provided with a long staff or handle Crown, Franciscan - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet Crown of Thorns - Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence Crucifix and Cross in Archæology - The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity Crucifix and Cross in Liturgy - Information on the history and uses Crucifix, Altar - The principal ornament of the altar Cruelty to Animals - Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives Cruet - A small vessel used for containing the wine and water required for the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass Crusades - Expeditions undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny. Crypt - The word originally meant a hidden place, natural or artificial, suitable for the concealment of persons or things Cuba - The largest and westernmost island of the West Indies Culdees - In the Irish language the word was written Ceile-De, meaning companion, or even spouse, of God, with the Latin equivalent in the plural, Colidei, anglicized into Culdees; in Scotland it was often written Kelidei Cult, Disparity of - A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the sanctity of the Sacrament of Marriage Cuncolim, Martyrs of - On Monday, 25 July, 1583 (N.S.), the village of Cuncolim in the district of Salcete, territory of Goa, India, was the scene of the martyrdom of five religious of the Society of Jesus: Fathers Rudolph Acquaviva, Alphonsus Pacheco, Peter Berno, and Anthony Francis, also Francis Aranha, lay brother Cupola - A spherical ceiling, or a bowl-shaped vault, rising like an inverted cup over a circular, square, or multangular building or any part of it Curate - Literally, one who has the cure (care) or charge of souls, in which sense it is yet used by the Church of England, 'All Bishops and Curates' Curé d'Ars - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869 Cure of Souls - Technically, the exercise of a clerical office involving the instruction, by sermons and admonitions, and the sanctification, through the sacraments, of the faithful in a determined district, by a person legitimately a ppointed for the purpose Curia, Roman - Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church Cursing - In its popular acceptation cursing is often confounded, especially in the phrase 'cursing and swearing', with the use of profane and insulting language; in canon law it sometimes signifies the ban of excommunication pronounced by the Church Cush - Cush, like the other names of the ethnological table of Genesis, x, is the name of a race, but it has generally been understood to designate also an individual, the progenitor of the nations and tribes known in the ancient world as Cushites Custom (in Canon Law) - An unwritten law introduced by the continuous acts of the faithful with the consent of the legitimate legislator Custos - 1) An under-sacristan (2) A superior or an official in the Franciscan order Cuthbert, Saint - Biography of this soldier, monk, bishop of Lindisfarne, hermit Cyprian of Toulon, Saint - Bishop of Toulon, student and biographer of St. Caesarius of Arles. Cyprian died in 546 Cyprian of Carthage, Saint - Long article on this bishop and martyr Cyril and Methodius, Saints - Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs Cyril of Alexandria, Saint - Article on this Doctor of the Church, and anti-Nestorian theologian Cyril of Jerusalem, Saint - Bishop, Doctor of the Church, d. 386